When you have published your research article, your institution encourages you to deposit a version of the article in the institutional repository (the institutional online archive). This is very often called green open access. The version of the article you may deposit is usually a so-called post-print.
In this chapter, you will learn about the following issues:
- Archiving in open repositories (institutional or subject archives)
- How to deposit your article in an archive (step-by-step guide)
Archiving in open repositories
Open Access archiving, or self-archiving in an open repository, means that you deposit your research publications in an online archive. Publications are made available online free of charge. Open archives do not perform peer reviewing, but they can contain copies of journal articles that have been peer reviewed elsewhere.
What about self-archiving books?
Publishers will often let copyright for books that are out of print go back to the author. If this is not stated in your contract with the publisher, you would have to ask them for permission.
In addition, open access online repositories are used for making available research material that is not easily accessible through other channels, e.g. dissertations, working papers, conference papers and research reports.
There are different types of open access repositories:
Institutional repositories: These contain articles, master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, and other types of research publications from the institution.
Subject (disciplinary) repositories: These contain research publications in one or more subject area. Many of these repositories are pre-print archives, where researchers can make early versions of articles available in order to distribute findings fast.
There are also repositories affiliated to funding bodies, scholarly communities and national or cross-institutional archives, which might establish their own repositories to ensure that research that they fund is made available online.
Archiving in an institutional repository ('green' open access)
Why archive your publications online?
Access: More people will have access to research articles, online books and unpublished material.
Searchable: The material is indexed by search engines, like Google and Google Scholar, and harvested by national and international databases and library catalogues.
Archiving: Open repositories ensure long-term archiving and no broken links.
Visibility: Institutional repositories can collect, make visible and promote an institution's research, while subject repositories can do the same within specific fields.
If you are affiliated to a research institution in Norway, you can deliver a full text of your publication to your institutional repository through the national research information system Cristin:
- Log in with your institutional username and password, and find or register your publication.
- Select "Deliver full-text documents" at the bottom of the page and follow the instructions.
- Do you need to clear copyright? If you use third party material (i.e. photographs, figures, artistic work, printed music, maps ...), this might be the case. You will usually have copyright to your own unpublished material, and will not need to ask for permission. Be aware that making available unpublished material and results can cause problems for further publishing in some journals.
- If you are planning to make available material that has co-authors, you should ask their permission first.
- Articles: Check the publisher’s policy towards self-archiving in the SHERPA/RoMEO-database, the publishers website or the publishing contract. Usually publishers will own copyright to articles that they publish, and these articles have a licence that restricts re-use. Publishers might allow a version of the article to be made available online (pre-print, post-print or publisher's final version). However, there might be an embargo.
- Book chapters: There will sometimes be an embargo. This must be checked with the publisher. See if it is stated in the contract, check the publisher's website, or ask the publisher for information on what is allowed.
- Most gold open access articles or book chapters can be archived in the institutional repository without the need to ask for permission, because they are published with a Creative Commons licence. Remember to upload your gold open access publications via Cristin, to ensure long-term archiving and to comply with institutional and funder mandates.
Do you find this difficult? Don't panic! After you deliver the full text document in Cristin, library staff will check your publication before it is made openly available online in the repository.
Versions of articles:
- Pre-print. The manuscript version can be either a draft or submitted to a journal. It is not peer-reviewed. Most publishers will allow manuscript versions to be self-archived.
- Accepted post-print. The final version of an article that has been accepted for publishing. It has been peer-reviewed, but has not been through final proofreading and formatting. Most publishers will allow this version to be self-archived.
- Published. The publisher's version with the journal layout (PDF). The final formatted, published version. Most non-open-access publishers will not allow this version to be self-archived.
Some journals set an embargo period on self-archiving one or more versions of an article. Usually the embargo period will be 6, 12 or 24 months after publishing, depending on the subject area.
WHERE TO ARCHIVE OPEN ACCESS?
Examples of institutional repositories in Norway: Below are examples of Norwegian institutional repositories. Please note, though, that you will usually upload to your institutional repository via Cristin, as described above, and not directly to the repository.
- DUO Research Archive – The University of Oslo
- MUNIN Open Research Archive - UiT The Arctic University of Norway
- Bergen Open Research Archive (BORA-UiB) – The University of Bergen
- NHH Brage Open Institutional Repository – Norwegian School of Economics
- HVL Open – Western Norway University of Applied Sciences
- NTNU Open - Norwegian University of Science and Technology
For a full list of Norwegian institutional repositories see the Norwegian website for open access (in Norwegian). If you cannot find your repository on the list, contact your library.
For a full list of institutional repositories worldwide, see the Directory of Open Access Repositories (Open DOAR).
An option can be to make available a version in a subject based repository. One example is ArXiv.org. In the Open Directory you will find a list of disciplinary repositories.