When you have published a research article, you should deposit a version of the article in your institutional repository (online archive). If and when possible, the library will make it openly available as so-called green open access. The version of the article you may deposit is usually a so-called post-print or author accepted manuscript (AAM).
In this chapter, you will learn about the following issues:
- Archiving in open repositories (institutional or other online archives)
- How to deposit your article in an archive (step-by-step guide)
Archiving in open repositories
Open Access archiving, or self-archiving in an open repository, means that you deposit your research publications in an online archive. Some restrictions, like an embargo period, may apply, but the aim and idea is to make publications available online free of charge. Open archives do not perform peer reviewing, but they can contain copies of journal articles that have been peer reviewed elsewhere.
What about self-archiving books?
Publishers will often let copyright for books that are out of print go back to the author. If this is not stated in your contract with the publisher, you would have to ask them for permission.
In addition, open access online repositories are used for making available research material that is not easily accessible through other channels, e.g. dissertations, working papers, conference papers and research reports.
There are different types of open access repositories:
Institutional repositories: These contain articles, master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, and other types of research publications from the institution.
Subject (disciplinary) repositories: These contain research publications in one or more subject area. Many of these repositories are pre-print archives, where researchers can make early versions of articles available in order to distribute findings fast.
There are also national or cross-institutional archives, and repositories affiliated to scholarly communities and funding bodies, which might establish their own repositories to ensure that research that they fund is made available online.
Archiving in an institutional repository ('green' open access)
Why archive your publications online?
Access: More people will have access to research articles, online books and unpublished material.
Searchable: The material is indexed by search engines, like Google and Google Scholar, and harvested by national and international databases and library catalogues.
Archiving: Open repositories ensure long-term archiving and no broken links.
Visibility: Institutional repositories can collect, make visible and promote an institution's research, while subject repositories can do the same within specific fields.
If you are affiliated to a research institution in Norway, you can deliver a full text of your publication to your institutional repository through the national research information system Cristin:
- Log in with your institutional username and password, and find or register your publication.
- Select 'Deliver full-text documents' at the bottom of the page and follow the instructions.
- Do you need to clear copyright? If you use third party material (i.e. photographs, figures, artistic work, printed music, maps ...), this might be the case. You will usually have copyright to your own unpublished material, and will not need to ask for permission. Be aware that making available unpublished material and results can cause problems for further publishing in some journals.
- If you are planning to make available material that has co-authors, you should ask their permission first.
- Most gold open access articles or book chapters can be archived in the institutional repository without the asking permission, because they are published with a Creative Commons licence. Remember to upload your gold open access publications via Cristin, to ensure long-term archiving and to comply with institutional and funder mandates.
Do you find this difficult? Don't panic! After you deliver the full text document in Cristin, library staff will check your publication before it is made openly available online in the repository.
Versions of articles:
- Pre-print / submitted. The manuscript version can be either a draft or submitted to a journal. It is not peer-reviewed. Most publishers will allow manuscript versions to be self-archived.
- Author accepted manuscript (AAM). The final version of an article that has been accepted for publishing. It has been peer-reviewed, but has not been through final proofreading and formatting. Most publishers will allow this version to be self-archived.
- Published. The publisher's version with the journal layout (PDF). The final formatted, published version. Most non-open-access publishers will not allow this version to be self-archived.
Some journals set an embargo period on self-archiving one or more versions of an article. Usually the embargo period will be 6, 12 or 24 months after publishing, depending on the subject area.
WHERE TO ARCHIVE OPEN ACCESS?
Examples of institutional repositories in Norway: Below are examples of Norwegian institutional repositories. Please note, though, that you will usually upload to your institutional repository via Cristin, as described above, and not directly to the repository.
- DUO Research Archive – The University of Oslo
- MUNIN Open Research Archive - UiT The Arctic University of Norway
- Bergen Open Research Archive (BORA-UiB) – The University of Bergen
- NHH Brage Open Institutional Repository – Norwegian School of Economics
- HVL Open – Western Norway University of Applied Sciences
- NTNU Open - Norwegian University of Science and Technology
For a full list of Norwegian institutional repositories see the Norwegian website for open access (in Norwegian). If you cannot find your repository on the list, contact your library.
For a full list of open repositories worldwide, see Open DOAR.
An option can be to make available a version in a subject based repository. One example is ArXiv.org. In the Open Access Directory you will find a list of disciplinary repositories.